The combustion process between fuel and gases takes place within the engine. This combustion generates many gases like hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulate matter. The creation leading to the emission of these gases through the tail pipe connected with the engine is known as the emission system.The emission is obviously in the atmosphere. Gases diffuse in the atmosphere after leaving the car’s emission system. The hydrocarbons may also emit through the process of vaporization. Whatever processes the emission occurs through; it remains toxic in nature, and negatively affects public health as well as the preservation of a natural environment.
The government act regarding emission control system and technological advancements in this regard has been there since a few decades. In the year 1977, an act was passed, named the Clean Air Act. It was a prime example of being a responsible citizen and feeling accountable to the environmental hazards. The act limited the amount of toxic gases to be emitted by each vehicle. It was an upper ceiling, restricting the emission in excess to that level.
In consequence of the Clean Air Act, automobile manufacturers responded with improved technology. They came up with advanced engines and parts that could reduce emissions. This was certainly a smart move because keeping the engines constant, people would have faced difficulty meeting the emission level.
Thus in the year 1981, came the first self-adjusting engines. The addition of pollution control devices in the engine enabled car owners to drive freely without the worry of keeping the emission to a certain level. New technology has only reduced the chances of disease caused by extended exposure to the engine emitted toxic gases. However, complete eradication of these emissions still has a long way to go.
The emission system of a car functions with the help of a long pipe. This pipe connects the engine with the tail pipe through which all burnt and toxic gases discharge. This pipe is associated with a number of components that help in proper functioning of the entire emission system.
The exhaust manifold is a component over the exhaust system and connected with the engine. Burnt gases are received first by the exhaust manifold. It is extremely hot and further burns any insufficiently burnt gas. Finally it passes the burnt gases down towards the funnel. Exhaust manifolds help transport the burnt gases right from the engine to the tail pipe. The muffler reduces noise. The catalytic converter, just like the exhaust manifold, further burns gases in order to make them the less harmful. The tail pipe is the final part of the emission system. Burnt gases pass through the tailpipe and diffuse into the environment.
The names of some well-known emission control devices that are installed in new cars are the EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) valve, air pump, charcoal canister, PCV (Positive Crankcase Ventilation) valve, catalytic converter, thermal management systems, air injection, particulate filters, oxygen and carbon monoxide sensors.